The School Gathers in 1895

In the manuscripts collection of Andover-Harvard Library is found the following photograph of the school gathered in 1895, together with a typewritten list identifying many in the photograph. The person's position in the photograph and brief biographical information is included.

The School Gathers in 1895

Top row #1: Edwin Diller Starbuck (formerly Edwin Eli Starbuck) was born in Guilford Township, Indiana, on February 20, 1866. He was raised in the Quaker tradition, though by early adulthood he had developed a highly critical view of traditional Christian dogma. Investigating Christian belief, however, was more for Starbuck than a personal endeavor.

After receiving an AB degree in 1890 from Indiana University, Starbuck enrolled at Harvard to study religion, philosophy and psychology. While at Harvard, Starbuck engaged in independent research in what is now called the psychology of religion. Having developed various questionnaires "measuring" individual religious experience, Starbuck, largely outside of formal instruction, linked religious experience and psychology, a hitherto unknown field of study. In Dean Everett's class in Systematic Theology, he met Anna Maria Diller (top row, #7) a fellow student, whom he married in 1896.

Starbuck's early work at Harvard elicited a mixed response, with some claiming that psychology and religion "have nothing to do with one each other." Importantly, one of Starbuck's chief supporters was William James, who incorporated Starbuck's findings in The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902).

Starbuck remembered his experience at HDS in his essay "Religion's Use of Me":

[p. 226] During the winter of 1894-5, about the middle of the second year of the study, some clear and significant consistencies began to appear, particularly in the conversion study: the piling up of age-frequencies near pubescence; likenesses of the phenomena of conversion and those attending the breaking of habits; the signs of the dissociation of personality and its recentering, not unlike the split-personality experiences described by James, Prince, and Janet; and so on through a considerable list. Dean Everett was sufficiently interested to request a report before his class in the philosophy of religion made up of about sixty graduate students which included' women as well as men, since Radcliffe students were that year for the first time admitted to graduate courses at Harvard. The presentation was simple and factual and unargumentative. The discussion was then thrown open to the class. That occasion was a sort of christening ceremony for the babe newly born into the family of academic subjects. Some quite hot water was poured into the baptismal font. The first douse of it came from Edward Borncamp, who rose, his face white with emotion. His first sentence, fervid with the warmth of deep conviction, was, "It's all a lie!" Laughter broke out there in that dignified classroom. There was also a pouring of friendly waters into the font, and words of commendation for this new babe. Of course, the attempted damnation of the infant by the first speaker was because its swaddling clothes were only the filthy rags of earthly psychology, [p.227] ill-becoming the sacredness of religion. The charming Dean, high priest on that occasion, had words of encouragement for the father of the child, and for the offspring itself. There in that class sat Anna Diller, profound student, musician-artist. She warmed towards it and took it to her bosom as she was later to take the whole oncoming Starbuck brood.

After receiving his AM from Harvard in 1895, Starbuck enrolled in PhD studies at Clark University. After receiving his PhD two years later, Starbuck published his The Psychology of Religion, the first text in the new field.

Starbuck spent much of his life teaching, holding positions at Stanford University (Assistant Professor of Education, 1897-1903), Earlham College (Professor of Education, 1904-06), the State University of Iowa (Professor of Philosophy, 1906-30), and the University of California (Professor of Philosophy and Psychology, 1930-43, afterwards emeritus). Between his time at Stanford and Earlham, Starbuck studied in Germany under Ernst Meumann, a leading scholar in the new field of educational psychology. After his time in Germany, Starbuck concentrated on "character education," including work with the American Unitarian Association on religious education curricula. He died November 18, 1947.

Top row #2: John Pierce Fox was born in Dorchester on November 5, 1872, He graduated from Harvard College in 1894 and studied at HDS for one year. He became a municipal consultant, specializing in transportation, zoning and city planning, primarily in New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts. Beginning in 1928, Fox served as a consultant on the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg. He died June 25, 1960.

<strong>Top row #3: Charles Albert Parker (Baptist) was born in Ludlow, Maine, on January 8, 1859. He graduated from Brown in 1886 and from Rochester Theological Seminary in 1889. He studied at HDS for almost two years and was ordained in 1889. He served congregations in Lake City, Colorado; and Carver, Quincy, Los Gatos, San Jose, and Redwood City in California. He died July 23, 1930.

Top row #4: Herbert Cunningham Farwell (Unitarian) was born in Clinton, Massachusetts, on November 5, 1868. He graduated from Meadville Theological School in 1894 and studied at HDS for about a year and a half. He worked in the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities (1895-99) and became the Superintendent of the Salem Fraternity ("The Oldest American Boys Club") for 56 years beginning in 1899. He died in 1966.

Top row #5: John Henry Applebee (Unitarian) was born in Davenport, England, on March 12, 1868. The son of a Methodist then Unitarian minister, Applebee moved to the United States and graduated from Meadville Theological School in 1894 and studied at HDS for one year. He served congregations in Buffalo, New York; West Roxbury, Massachusetts; Attleborough, Massachusetts; and Syracuse, New York. Applebee also served in the American Red Cross Home Services during World War I. He died January 11, 1938.

Top row #6: Cora Weld Peabody (January 4, 1848-September 5, 1914) was the daughter of Francis Minot and Elizabeth Rodman Weld and the wife of Professor Francis Greenwood Peabody.

Top row #7: Anna Diller [Starbuck] was the daughter of Isaac Diller. Almost blind from spiral meningitis as a young girl, she was sent to a private school in Ontario, Canada, where she developed a special interest in music. She later studied in Leipzig with Hershift, a student of Franz Lizst, and was one of the first to use the "sensitive touch" technique of Leschetizky. She was one of the first two Radcliffe women to take courses at Harvard (under William James, Josiah Royce, and Dean C.C. Everett). She was married in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, on August 5, 1896, to Edwin Starbuck (who changed his middle name to her maiden name), and had eight children. She taught in the Music Department of the University of Iowa from about 1913 until her death on February 12, 1929.

Top row #8: William Channing Brown (Unitarian) was born in Sherborn, Massachusetts, on March 7, 1868. He graduated from Meadville Theological School in 1894. After attending HDS for one year, Brown served congregations in Gardner, Massachusetts (where he was ordained in 1895); Hubbardston, Massachusetts (1895-98); Littleton, Massachusetts (1898-1904); Wheeling, West Virginia (1924-28); and Sudbury, Massachusetts (1929-35). Brown was appointed Field Secretary of the American Unitarian Association, a position he held from 1904 to 1923. Brown, at the time the oldest minister in the Unitarian Universalist Association and a minister emeritus in Littleton, Massachusetts, died on May 6, 1967, at the age of 100.

Top row #9: Joseph Cady Allen (Unitarian) was born in Rochester, New York, on January 30, 1869. After attending HDS for one year, Allen was ordained and served congregations in Winona, Michigan; Redlands, California; Scituate, Massachusetts; Yarmouth, Maine; Walpole and Hubbardston, Massachusetts; Charlestown, New Hampshire; Farmington, Maine; Genesco, Illinois (following a brief stint as a troubadour Shakespearean actor in the British Isles); Rowe, Massachusetts; and Bernardston, Massachusetts. He died April 22, 1955.

Top row #10: Horace Ainsworth Eaton was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, on October 13, 1871. He graduated from Harvard College in 1893 and studied at HDS for two years.  After receiving his PhD from Harvard in 1900, Eaton taught German and English at the University of Vermont and, beginning in 1903, English at Syracuse University. He wrote a biography of the author Thomas De Quincey and edited his 1803 diary. Eaton was one of the founders and a leading member of the Syracuse Meeting of Friends. He died August 10, 1958.

Top row #11: Joseph Francis Langton (Presbyterian) was born in Watertown, New York, on May 5, 1862. He graduated from McGill University in 1887, from the Presbyterian College of Montreal in 1888, and from HDS in 1896. He was ordained and served congregations in Quebec; Waltham, Massachusetts; Londonderry, New Hampshire; Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania; Wetonka, South Dakota; and Jacksonville, Illinois. He died November 1, 1932.

Top row #12: Henry Collier Wright (Methodist) was born in Le Roy, Ohio, on August 29, 1868. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan in 1894 and from HDS in 1896. He received a PhD from Boston University in 1900. He served congregations in Austin, Minnesota; Dubuque, Iowa; St. Paul, Minnesota; and Cincinnati, Ohio. Wright also served with the Russell Sage Foundation and was the first Deputy Commissioner of the Department of Public Charities in New York City. As a sociologist, he authored numerous books including Bossism in Cincinnati (1906) and The American City (1915). He died October 24, 1935.

2nd row #1: Edward Kennard Rand was born in Boston on December 20, 1871. He graduated from Harvard College in 1894, studied at HDS for one year, and received his PhD from the University of Munich (1900). Rand held three positions at Harvard throughout his career: Instructor of Latin (1901-06), Assistant Professor of Latin (1906-09) and Professor of Latin (1909-42; Pope Professor of Latin after 1931). He served as annual professor and later trustee and life member of the American Academy of Rome. He was president of the American Philological Association and one of the founders of the Mediaeval Academy of America, serving as its first president and the editor of the first three volumes of its journal, Speculum, for which he suggested the name. He became a high church Anglican and had passed the collection plate at the Church of the Advent on the morning of the Sunday he died. In recognition of his scholarship and lifelong devotion to France, he was posthumously awarded the degree of Docteur de l'Université by the University of Paris. His works included Founders of the Middle Ages (1928), The Magical Art of Virgil (1931), and The Building of Eternal Rome (1943). He died October 28, 1945.

2nd row #2: Adelbert Lathrop Hudson (Unitarian) was born on November 12, 1853, in Richland, New York, and received an LLB from the University of Iowa in 1876. He practiced law for 17 years, first as the County Attorney in Algona, Iowa, and then in 1883 with a firm in Sioux City, Iowa. It was in Sioux City that, as a layman, he helped organize the First Unitarian Church in 1885. His interest in religion was so keen that he decided to study for the ministry. He graduated from HDS in 1905, although he began his studies much earlier. He was ordained in 1897 and served congregations in Salt Lake City, Utah; Buffalo, New York; Newton, Massachusetts (Channing Church); and Quincy, Massachusetts. In 1920, he became minister of the First Parish in Dorchester, Massachusetts, which he served until his death on April 5, 1938.

2nd row #3: Robert Swain Morison (Unitarian) was born in Milton, Massachusetts, on October 13, 1847. He graduated from Harvard College in 1869 and from HDS in 1872. He was minister of the Independent Congregational Church in Meadville, Pennsylvania, from 1874 to 1878. He served as librarian (from 1889, emeritus after 1908) and secretary of the faculty (1893-1908) at HDS. He died February 12, 1925.

2nd row #4: Ephraim Emerton was born February 18, 1851, in Salem, Massachusetts. He graduated from Harvard College in 1871, worked as a reporter for the Boston Advertiser, studied law at Boston University, and studied under Theodor Mommsen and J. G. Droysen at Leizig University. At Harvard, he was Instructor in History and German (1876-78), Instructor in History (1878-82), and Winn Professor of Ecclesiastical History (1882-1918). His published works include Medieval Europe, 814-1300, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, Unitarian Thought, The Defensor Pacis of Marsiglio of Padua, and Humanism and Tyranny: Studies in the Italian Trecento. He died March 3, 1935.

2nd row #5: Charles Carroll Everett was born in Brunswick, Maine, on June 19. 1829. He graduated from Bowdoin in 1850, studied at Bowdoin Medical College and in Berlin under Georg Andreas Gabler and taught modern languages at Bowdoin (1853-57; for the last three years he was also Librarian). His tenure was vetoed by the Bowdoin Overseers because he was a Unitarian. He graduated from HDS in 1859 and served the Independent Congregational (Unitarian) Church in Bangor, Maine (1859-69). At Harvard, he was Bussey Professor of Theology (1869-1900) and Dean (1878-1900). His published works include Religions before Christianity; Fichte's Science of Knowledge; Essays on Poetry, Comedy, and Duty; Ethics for Young People; The Gospel of Paul. A collection of his essays, Essays, Theological and Literary, was published in 1901. He died October 16, 1900.

2nd row #6: Joseph Henry Thayer was born in Boston on November 7, 1828. He graduated from Harvard College in 1850, studied at Harvard Divinity School (1854-55) and graduated from Andover Theological Seminary in 1857. He served the Crombie Street Church in Salem (1859-64) and as Chaplain of the 40th Regiment Infantry, Massachusetts Volunteers (1862-63). At Andover, he was Professor of Sacred Literature (1864-82). At Harvard he was Lecturer on Biblical Theology (1883-84) and Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation (1884-1901). Much of his the scholarship focused on translation, including serving as one of the revisers that produced the American Standard Versioin and his best-known work, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, to which he devoted nearly twenty years. He died November 26, 1901.

 2nd row #7: David Gordon Lyon was born in Benton, Alabama, on May 24, 1852. He graduated from Howard College in 1875. He studied at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, but when his mentor, Crawford Howell Toy resigned, he went to study in Germany with Friedrich Delitzsch. He received a PhD from Leipzig in 1882. At Harvard, he was Hollis Professor of Divinity (1882-1910) and Hancock Professor of Hebrew and other Oriental Languages (1910-22). He conceived the idea of the Semitic Museum, convinced Jacob Schiff to fund it, was its first curator from 1891 until 1922, and oversaw the completion of the building in 1903. He also served as the Director of the American School for Oriental Study and Research in Palestine, 1906-07, and excavated at Samaria. His works included An Assyrian Manual and Harvard Excavtions at Samaria, 1908-1910. He died December 4, 1935.

2nd row #8: Edward Hale (Unitarian) was born in Northampton, Massachusetts, on February 22, 1858. He graduated from Harvard College in 1879. He lived in Rome, Italy, for two years and then studied architecture in the office of H. H. Richardson. After graduating from Harvard Divinity School in 1886, he served as Associate Minister of the South Congregational Church in Boston and then as Minister in Orange, New Jersey. He was Assistant (1886-96), Instructor (1896-97), and Associate Professor (1897-1906) of Homiletics at HDS. He was minister of the First Church of Chestnut Hill from 1897 until his death on March 27, 1918.

2nd row #9: Not identified

2nd row #10: Edward Pearson Pressey (Unitarian) was born in Salem, New Hampshire, on June 28, 1869. He graduated from Harvard College in 1893. After studying at HDS for two years, Pressey was ordained and served congregations in Montague and Turners Falls, Massachusetts. At Montague he founded New Clairvaux, a utopian community based on the "Arts and Crafts" ideal. He advocated a return to the self-sufficient, pre-industrial age in which the dignity of labor was revived and service to all honored. The community never consisted of much more than six families, students, and apprentices who shared common work areas but had privately owned residences. In 1910 the New Clairvaux Press under Carl Rollins published his History of Montague. His community, however, fragmented. He left Montague in 1914 to farm in Vermont and finally settled in Schenectady, New York, where he became Associated Press editor of the Schenectady Gazette. He died September 14, 1928.

3rd row #1: Alexander Pheneix Bourne (Congregationalist) was born in New York on January 7, 1866. He graduated from Brown in 1890 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1894. He studied at HDS for one year. He served congregations in Exeter, New Hampshire; Cambridge, Massachusetts; and Rochester, Massachusetts. He died September 4, 1946.

3rd row #2: Burris Atkins Jenkins (Disciples) was born in Kansas City, Missouri, on October 2, 1869. He graduated from Bethany College (West Virginia) and from HDS in 1895. He served congregations in Santa Barbara, California; Indianapolis, Indiana; Buffalo, New York; and Kansas City, Missouri. Jenkins also briefly served as Professor of the New Testament at the University of Indianapolis and as President of Kentucky University. He published numerous books and was also editor and publisher of The Kansas City Post (1919-21) and publisher of The Christian (1926-34). He died March 13, 1945.

3rd row #3: Alfred Rodman Hussey (Unitarian) was born in New Bedford on March 22, 1869. He graduated from Harvard College in 1892 and from HDS in 1895. He served congregations in West Roxbury; Massachusetts; Taunton, Massachusetts; Baltimore, Maryland; Lowell, Massachusetts; and Plymouth, Massachusetts (1921-39). From 1916 to 1930 he was the literary and book editor of The Christian Register. He died in 1947.

3rd row #4: Carlos Carson Rowlinson (Disciples) was born in Kent, Indiana, on May 5, 1895. He graduated from Eureka College in 1891 and from HDS in 1895. He served Disciples congregations in Jefferson City, Missouri; Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Marshalltown, Iowa; Indianapolis, Indiana; Kenton, Ohio; Iowa City, Iowa; and Congregational churches in La Crosse, Wisconsin; and Brooklyn and Fairfield, Connecticut. He died July 11, 1935.

3rd row #5: Frederick Marsh Bennett (Unitarian) was born in Woodstock, Ohio, on April 6. 1866. He graduated from the University of Illinois in 1899. He studied at HDS for three years and received an AM in 1895. He served congregations in Carthage, Missouri; Keokuk, Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Youngstown, Ohio. Bennett also served as a Unitarian Conference Field Agent for the Middle States and Canada. He died December 21, 1929.

3rd row #6: Earl Boynton Wood (Congregationalist) was born in Bangor, Maine, on January 7, 1871.  After graduating from HDS in 1895, he served congregations in Lovell and Fort Fairfield, Maine. He died June 22, 1899.

3rd row #7: George Rudolph Gebauer (Unitarian) was born in Schmardt, Germany, on March 17, 1857. After graduating from the Gymnasium in Brieg and serving in the army for one year, he immigrated to Philadelphia where an uncle was a Reformed pastor. After graduating from HDS in 1895, he served congregations in Cincinnati, Ohio; Alton, Illinois; Duluth, Minnesota; Keokuk, Iowa; and Pittsburg (Northside), Pennsylvania. He died December 30, 1930.

3rd row #8: Augustus Phineas Reccord (Unitarian) was born in Acushnet, Massachusetts, on February 14, 1870. He graduated from Brown in 1892 and from HDS in 1895. He served congregations in Chelsea, Massachusetts; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Newport, Rhode Island; Springfield, Massachusetts; and Detroit, Michigan. Reccord, a Minister Emeritus at parishes in Grosse Point and Detroit, Michigan, served in the active Unitarian ministry for 44 years, after which he served informally with parishes in Montreal and Louisville, Kentucky. He died October 4, 1946.

4th row #1: Edward Borncamp (formerly John Edward Borncamp) (Episcopalian) was born in LeSueur, Minnesota, on November 7, 1868. He graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1893 and the Episcopal Theological (now Divinity) School in 1896. He studied at HDS for just over one year. He served congregations in Duxbury, Massachusetts; Boston, Massachusetts; and Winona, Minnesota. He died August 11, 1912, while finishing the second lesson in a service at the Stoke Church in Coventry, England.

4th row #2: Henry Oliver Hannum (Congregationalist) was born in Kasota, Minnesota, on October 19, 1871. He attended HDS for one year. He served congregations in Southwick, Boston, Holyoke, Newburyport, and Ayer (these in Massachusetts), and Superior, Wisconsin. He also briefly worked for the YMCA and the Interchurch World Movement. He died January 23, 1948.

4th row #3: Willard Reed (Unitarian) was born in Mount Vernon, New York, on June 26, 1876. He graduated from Harvard College (1891) and received his AM after study at HDS in 1896. He was ordained in Passaic, New Jersey, and briefly served the congregation there and in Rutherford, New Jersey. He spent much of his career as an educator, both as an administrator and teacher. In Massachusetts, Reed served at the Roxbury Latin School as well as the Browne and Nichols School. A local political activist, Reed sat on the Cambridge City Democratic Committee. After retirement from education, Reed returned to the ministry, informally serving parishes in the Cambridge area. Both his son, Capt. Willard J. Reed (age 32), and grandson, John Reed Copeland (at age 18), were killed in World War II. Willard Reed died September 6, 1944.

4th row #4: Chester James Wilcomb (Baptist) was born in Chester, New Hampshire, on August 27, 1869. He graduated from Harvard College in 1895 and also studied at HDS during that year. He studied at Columbia (AM 1897) and graduated from Union Theological Seminary (1898). He briefly served a congregation in Greenville, New Hampshire. He then taught at Dartmouth College and in Brooklyn, New York; San Rafael, California; and Riverside, California. He died August 18, 1953.

4th row #5: Robert Thomas Kerlin (Methodist) was born in New Castle, Missouri, on March 22, 1866. He received a master’s degree from Central College in Missouri in 1890 and studied at HDS for almost two years before serving as the Chaplain for the 3rd Regular Missouri Volunteer Infantry. He also studied at Johns Hopkins, the University of Chicago, and Yale (PhD 1907). He taught at a number of colleges, including Missouri Valley College; Normal Schools in Missouri, Virginia, and Pennsylvania; and the Virginia Military Institute, where he was fired after his “Open Letter to the Governor of Arkansas” appeared in the anti-segregation publication The Nation. He wrote this letter in response to the news that ninety-two African-American men had been sentenced to life in prison or execution following the Elaine Riot. The riot was an uprising which ensued after a gathering of African-American men, women, and children were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan at their church in Hoop Spur, Arkansas. In the days following the attack, fifty to sixty African-Americans were killed while attempting to defend themselves from their attackers. Kerlin published numerous books including Theocritus in English Literature (1909) and Negro Poets and Their Poems (1923). He died March 15, 1950. He was honored in an obituary in the Journal of Negro History after his death and is the subject of a featured historical biography on the VMI Archives website by Fredrick Walker.

4th row #6: Joseph Henry Jones (Unitarian) was born in Holland, Virginia, October 22, 1869. He graduated from Elon College in 1894. After graduating from HDS in 1898, he served congregations in Providence, Rhode Island; St. Cloud, Minnesota; St. Joseph, Missouri; and Topeka, Kansas. After retiring from the ministry due to his health, he moved to Oklahoma City, where he was active in the First Unitarian Church.

4th row #7: Not identified

4th row #8: Wallace Nelson Stearns (Methodist) was born in Chagrin Falls, Ohio, on August 26, 1866. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan in 1891, from Harvard College in 1893, and from HDS in 1896. He received a PhD from Boston University (1899) and held teaching and administrative positions at Ohio Wesleyan, Boston University, Northwestern University, University of Illinois, Wesley College, University of North Dakota, Fargo College, and McKendree College (Illinois). He published numerous works including Fragments of Graeco-Jewish Writers (1908). He died February 3, 1934.

4th row #9: Kernan Robson was born in North Greenfield, Ohio, on September 22, 1892. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan in 1892 and studied at HDS for one year. He was Professor of English language and Literature at the University of South Dakota (1895-97). After moving to San Francisco, he became a newspaper reporter, then a high school teacher, and eventually had a very prosperous career in real estate. He died January 13, 1956.

4th row #12: Charles Melvin Crooks (Congregationalist) was born in Van Wert County, Ohio, on September 27, 1870. He graduated from Ohio State University in 1892 and from HDS in 1896. He served congregations in Colrain, Grafton, Worcester, Brockton, and Barre (these in Massachusetts). He died April 9, 1962.

4th row #13: Angelo Hall (Unitarian) was born in Washington, DC (Georgetown), on December 16, 1868. He graduated from Harvard College in 1891 and from HDS in 1896. He served congregations in Turners Falls, Massachusetts, and Andover, New Hampshire. In 1901 he became an instructor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy; in 1913, he was appointed as a professor. He was a champion for the rights of Armenians in Turkey. He died April 13, 1922.

4th row #14: Arthur Herbert Coar (Unitarian) was born in Yonkers, New York, on August 26, 1872. He graduated from Williams College in 1894 and from HDS in 1897. He served congregations in Ellsworth, Maine; Farmington, Maine; Holyoke and Amherst, Massachusetts; Elizabeth, New Jersey; and Pembroke, Massachusetts. He died January 4, 1950.

4th row #15: Not identified

4th row #10: Silas Jones (Disciples) was born in Owingsville, Kentucky, on February 11, 1867. He studied at HDS for two years. He served congregations in Newman and Sterling, Illinois. He was Professor of Sacred Literature and Philosophy at Eureka College from 1900 to 1938. He died December 18, 1944.

4th row #11: Lyman Manchester Greenman (Unitarian) was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, on May 10, 1870. He graduated from Harvard College in 1894 and studied at HDS for two years. He served congregations in Grafton, Massachusetts; Gloucester, Massachusetts; Yonkers, New York; New Brighton, New York; Quincy, Illinois; and Chelmsford, Massachusetts. He died May 24, 1952.